Geomorphology in hindi (Hindi Medium) Class notes in copy IAS, ke नोट्स पीडीएफ (Coaching Notes in PDF) फॉर्म में दे रहे हैं।. Download this Geomorphology notes in hindi pdf, click on the Button below and get the pdf so that you can prepare very well for your. Alok Ranjan Geography Optional Hindi Medium Class Notes - Geomorphology Part 1 of 3 - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online.
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Click on the button below to Download the Geomorphology Hindi by Alok Ranjan PDF e-book. Download Geomorphology PDF E-book. It is the study of the. Geomorphology in Hindi (भूआकृति विज्ञान). Submitted by Hindi on Mon, 04/12/ - Add new comment · Printer Friendly, PDF & Email Facebook . BHOO- AKRITI VIGYAN (Geomorphology) (Hindi) Hardcover Books- download BHOO- AKRITI VIGYAN (Geomorphology) (Hindi) Books online at lowest price with.
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Download from MediaFire Visit Mrunal. I am studying for Sociology as a Optional. If you have notes for both the papers, Could you please share it. I am not able to download it. Will be your greatest effort. Sir,in modern history lecture there are some vedios which are not uploaded before part 3 was started.
Sir ,if possible please provide me this vedios which were not uploaded. Your email address will not be published. Prologue Note1: Geomorphology and climatology partial Note2: Indian geography Note4: Migration, Ecology, Soil profile Note6: Gautham had prepared extensive notes on Geography optional subject spanning over pages in 6 separate notebooks with personal mentoring from Shankar Sir of the ShankarIAS Institute, Chennai.
He wishes to share these notes for the benefit of future aspirants. Download link available at bottom of this article. But first, here is the index of the topics covered in his geography optional notes: Geomorphology and climatology partial origin of Earth interior of the earth, discontinuities volcanism and earthquakes Continental and ocean basins continental drift theory: Mountains, geomorphic cycles, glaciation, desert landforms and arid landforms, Coastal landforms climatology: Malthuse theory of demographic transition seasonal variation of effective moisture Note3: Hence the built-up land has expanded more than threefold during the last 40 years, with an average expansion of 1.
Both built-up land and total urban area show a positive trend over time. However, the non-built-up land within the urban areas is under stress due to population pressure and the associated demand for urban expansion. As mentioned in the methodology section, to have a comparative understanding of growth of urban area and population growth, the decadal expansion of urban areas as well as the population has been calculated and projected for the years and , respectively Table 4 and Figure 3.
The respective growth rates have also been obtained. The result shows that, by the end of and , the population of Gwalior city will be 1. Similarly the total urban area will be But if we observe the result Table 3 where we can see the built-up land in is already The boom in built-up land has occurred in — in which it has expanded from That means where in 16 years the expansion was While there was a growth rate of The noticeable thing is that there is a fall in the growth rate of population during this period Table 3.
It is again another clear cut indication of the increase in the rate of urbanisation in spite of the falling population growth rate. By considering the growth from the predicted built-up land during and will be As it is mentioned it is unrealistic to predict the expansion of urbanisation by extrapolating the whole period of forty years; the average decadal growth rates were calculated only up to The urbanization area of respective years overlain with the respective satellite images has been shown in Figure 5 and the urban sprawl map in Figure 6.
Table 3: Population and expansion of Gwalior urban area. Table 4: Decadal growth of population and their expansion in Gwalior urban area. Figure 3: Decadal growth of population and their expansion in Gwalior urban area. Figure 4: Urban expansions over the years.
Figure 5: Urbanized map overlaid on satellite image of different years. Figure 6: Urban sprawl map of Gwalior city. The geomorphic units that are affected by the urban sprawl over the years , , , and have been given in Table 5.
The urban expansion and its effect on geomorphic units Table 5 and Figure 8 show that a total of The result implies that since it is easier, cost effective, and natural trend to make buildings in plains than on the hills, initially the nearby plain areas surrounding the urban fringe of have been gradually converted to the built-up land. With increasing pressure in the recent period, conversion of hills to built-up land is in progress. The geomorphic units affected by only built-up area have also been calculated Table 6 and Figure 9.
From the table it is clear that a total of The hills are converted to built-up land mostly after Initially residual hills are converted and gradually the denudational hills are affected. With increasing demand for urban space and nonavailability of plain areas, most of the denudational hills are going to be affected in future. Table 5: Geomorphic units affected due to urbanization during — Table 6: Geomorphic units affected due to built-up land during — Figure 7: Geomorphological map of the area and the affected geomorphic units as per scenario.
Figure 8: Urban expansion on geomorphic features a during —, b during —, c during —, and d during — Figure 9: Expansion of built-up land geomorphic units a during —, b during —, c during —, and d during — Hanuman Hill and GudiGuda Hill provided aesthetic as well as scenic beauty of the city. All these residual hills were affected by the urban expansion during the period under consideration.
The urban areas which expanded over the years and even crossed the GMD boundary are along the NH-3 towards Shivpuri and also towards Morena. The expansion crossed the GMD boundary mostly after The notable areas of the extension in are the Gupteshwar and Sikander Kampu area which ultimately expanded up to Girwali in Geomorphologically the affected residual hill is Gupteshwar.
Presently the expansion has reached up to Padampur and adjoining areas crossing the GMC boundary towards the northwest part and towards west it is Mohanpur and adjoining areas.
The most affected denudational hills are towards the south.
Due to the shifting of the New High Court, Gwalior experienced massive construction of multistoried buildings towards the south. The hillocks above m MSL which were visible during the 90s were demolished as a result of urban expansion. Presently the urban expansion towards the south has almost reached up to the boundary of the reserve forest along the Jhansi Road towards Sithauli affecting the denudational Odhapur Hill.
Geomorphologically the fluvial aspects within the Gwalior urban area are as follows. There have been two streams Swarnarekha and Morar Rivers which flow south to north through the western and eastern part of the city, respectively. Swarnarekha River originates from 3. The Morar River on the other hand originates at a distance of about 15 km upstream of Ramaua Dam in Gwalior district and flows through the eastern part of the city. Out of the two rivers the Swarnarekha River has been channelized in Figure The Morar River receives the rain water from the catchment area through various nallas.
Siltation throughout its course within the city is visible due to the disposal of the solid waste materials which obstructs the carrying capacity of the sediments.
Water logging problems have also been seen in the low lying areas Figure Even in the channelized Swarnarekha River there has been less infiltration of the rain water and consequently water logging problems and choked drainages and overflowing of the sewers are visible.
Both rivers get the natural rain water as well as the domestic waste following through the natural slope and the sewer lines from the respective catchment areas. The worst problem arises from the colonies and urban areas that have been expanded outside the catchment areas where there was no suitable draining system.
In these areas the rain water as well as the domestic water due to the lack of proper drainage management could not flow the natural slopes and hence the water logging problem arises. Such areas have been witnessed mostly in the southern and northern parts of the city. Similarly the urban areas outside the GMC boundary have also been suffering from the lack of sewer and proper drainage system. To sum up, the major implications of urbanisation for geomorphology of the study area include drastic altercations and even destruction of important geomorphological features such as buried pediplains and denudational hills and major changes in the fluvial and drainage systems of the region.
Figure Channelisation of Swarnarekha River. Figure Water logging and siltation in Morar River.
Conclusion This study attempts to explore the implications of urban expansion on the geomorphological features of Gwalior city. Rapid urbanisation has led to significant changes and destruction of important geomorphological features of Gwalior city, which has been captured in the study through Remote Sensing and GIS techniques.
The results show that the geomorphic features which are likely to be affected in future are the residual hills and the denudational hills apart from the plain areas due to the urban expansion. The natural drainage network of the city also gets affected by the urban expansion and the drainage is likely to be modified in future.
The waste water disposal system will affect the water quality in the city unless proper precautionary measures are taken. A first hand database created for this study can provide critical inputs in understanding the urban dynamics of the city. Urban planners and authorities in the future may take into account the environmental problems that may arise by unscientifically demolishing the natural topographic features and landforms for the expansion of built-up land.
Hence, taking into account the microgeomorphological features of the city and its surrounding areas, proper measures should be implemented for the improvement of future scenario. Conflict of Interests The authors declare that there is no conflict of interests regarding the publication of this paper. Acknowledgment The authors are thankful to Mr.
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