Biographies of the rightly guided caliphs pdf


    Biographies of the. Rightly-Guided Caliphs. سيرة الخلفاء الراشدين. ابن کثیر الطبري - السيوطي. Prepared from the works of Ibn Katheer, At. Tabari,. As-Syooti . Ibn Katheer, At-Tabari, As-Syooti and Other Historians. The four Rightly guided Caliphs (Khaliph’s) Abu Bakr As-Sideeq, Umar ibn Al-Khattaab, Uthmaan Ibn ’Affaan and Ali Ibn Abi Taalib. The Biography of Umar Ibn Abdel-Azeez who is regarded as one of the Rightly Guided Chaliphs. Language: English | Format: PDF | Pages: | Size: 23 MB. Biographies Of The Rightly-Guided Caliphs [Sirat-Ul Khulafa]. The four Rightly.

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    Biographies Of The Rightly Guided Caliphs Pdf

    Biographies of the. Rightly-Guided Caliphs. سيرة الخلفاء الراشدين. ابن کثیر الطبري - السيوطي. Prepared from the works of Ibn Katheer, At-. Tabari,. As-Syooti . Assalamu Alaikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Baraktuhu ===== For More Islamic Books Visit ===== [email protected]_islamic_media. By Ibn Katheer, At-Tabari, As-Syooti and Other Historians Language: English | Format: PDF | Pages: | Size: 23 MB Biographies Of The.

    For Sunnis, the first four successors of Muhammad: All were prominent Companions of Muhammad and belonged to the tribe of Quraysh. The period of their rule is considered a golden age, when the caliphs were consciously guided by Muhammad's practices. The period saw the establishment of Arab Muslim rule over the heartlands of the Middle East and preparation for conquests and expansion carried out under subsequent dynasties. Umar is portrayed as the dominant personality among the caliphs, establishing many of the fundamental institutions of the classical Islamic state. Uthman is generally held responsible for the canonization of the Quran as it is known today. He is described as personally pious but lacking the character needed to withstand unscrupulous relatives. Uthman's murder by malcontents opened a period of fitnah disorder, civil war , which brought about the disintegration of the previously united community, the takeover of the caliphate by the Umayyad family, and the end of the era of Arabia-centered Islam. All Rights Reserved. About What's New Log in.

    O Allah! Stay firm in supporting those who stay firm in following him, be hostile to those who are hostile to him, help those who help him, and forsake those who forsake him. O people!

    Rashidun Caliphate Research Papers -

    This Ali is my brother, the executor of my [affairs], the container of my knowledge, my successor over my nation, and over the interpretation the Book of Allah, the mighty and the majestic, and the true inviter to its [implications]. He is the one who acts according to what pleases Him, fights His enemies, causes to adhere to His obedience, and advises against His disobedience. Surely, He is the successor of the Messenger of Allah, the commander of the believers, the guiding Imam, and the killer of the oath breakers, the transgressors, and the apostates.

    I speak by the authority of Allah. The word with me shall not be changed. This event has been narrated by both Shia and Sunni sources. Further, after the sermon, Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman are all said to have given their allegiance to Ali, a fact that is also reported by both Shia and Sunni sources. Abu Bakr and Umar were among those that Muhammad commanded to join Usama's army.

    However, Abu Bakr and Umar resisted going under the command of Usama because they thought that he, who was 18 or 20 at the time, was too young to lead an army, [25] despite Muhammad's teachings that age and standing in society did not necessarily correspond to being a good general. In response to these worries, Muhammad said: You are miserable because I have appointed Usama as your general, and you are raising questions if he is qualified to lead you in war.

    I know you are the same people who had raised the same question about his father. By God, Usama is qualified to be your general just as his father was qualified to be a general. Now obey his orders and go.

    May Allah curse those men who do not go with him. It is also noted that this was the only battle expedition where Muhammad urged his companions to go to the battle no matter what; for other battles, if someone was unable to go to the fight, Muhammad would let them stay at home.

    It has been pointed out in history that the fact that Muhammad ordered his companions, but not his family, to leave Medina right before he knew he was about to die [32] is proof that he did not intend for his companions to decide on his succession. However, after Muhammad passed away, a group of Muslims left Ali and gathered at Saqifa. This was followed by an attack on the house of Ali and Fatimah in an attempt to defeat any opposition to Abu Bakr. Troubles emerged soon after Muhammad's death, threatening the unity and stability of the new community and state.

    In some cases, entire tribes apostatised. Others merely withheld zakat , the alms tax, without formally challenging Islam. Many tribal leaders made claims to prophethood; some made it during the lifetime of Muhammad. The apostasy of al-Yamama was led by another supposed prophet, Musaylimah , [37] who arose before Muhammad's death; other centers of the rebels were in the Najd , Eastern Arabia known then as al-Bahrayn and South Arabia known as al-Yaman and including the Mahra. Many tribes claimed that they had submitted to Muhammad and that with Muhammad's death, their allegiance was ended.

    Abu Bakr planned his strategy accordingly. He divided the Muslim army into several corps. The strongest corps, and the primary force of the Muslims, was the corps of Khalid ibn al-Walid. This corps was used to fight the most powerful of the rebel forces.

    Other corps were given areas of secondary importance in which to bring the less dangerous apostate tribes to submission. Abu Bakr's plan was first to clear Najd and Western Arabia near Medina, then tackle Malik ibn Nuwayrah and his forces between the Najd and al-Bahrayn, and finally concentrate against the most dangerous enemy, Musaylimah and his allies in al-Yamama. The year 12 Hijri dawned on 18 March with the Arabian peninsula united under the caliph in Medina.

    Once the rebellions had been put down, Abu Bakr began a war of conquest.

    Whether or not he intended a full-out imperial conquest is hard to say; he did, however, set in motion an historical trajectory that in just a few short decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history. Abu Bakr began with Iraq , the richest province of the Sasanian Empire.

    Despite the initial reservations of his advisers, Abu Bakr recognised the military and political prowess in Umar and desired him to succeed as caliph. The decision was enshrined in his will, and on the death of Abu Bakr in , Umar was confirmed in office. The new caliph continued the war of conquests begun by his predecessor, pushing further into the Sassanian Empire , north into Byzantine territory, and west into Egypt.

    It is an important fact to note that Umar never participated in any battle as a commander of a Muslim Army throughout his life. These were regions of great wealth controlled by powerful states, but long conflict between Byzantines and Persians had left both sides militarily exhausted, and the Islamic armies easily prevailed against them.

    By , they had brought all of Mesopotamia , Syria and Palestine under the control of the Rashidun Caliphate; Egypt was conquered by , and the entire Sassanian Empire by While the caliphate continued its rapid expansion, Umar laid the foundations of a political structure that could hold it together.

    He created the Diwan , a bureau for transacting government affairs. The military was brought directly under state control and into its pay. Crucially, in conquered lands, Umar did not require that non-Muslim populations convert to Islam, nor did he try to centralize government. Instead, he allowed subject populations to retain their religion, language and customs, and he left their government relatively untouched, imposing only a governor amir and a financial officer called an amil.

    These new posts were integral to the efficient network of taxation that financed the empire. With the bounty secured from conquest, Umar was able to support its faith in material ways: Umar is also remembered for establishing the Islamic calendar; it is lunar like the Arabian calendar, but the origin is set in , the year of the Hijra when Muhammad emigrated to Medina.

    Umar was assassinated by the Persian slave Piruz Nahavandi during morning prayers in Before Umar died, he appointed a committee of six men to decide on the next caliph, and charged them with choosing one of their own number. All of the men, like Umar, were from the tribe of Quraysh. The committee narrowed down the choices to two: Uthman and Ali.

    Ali was from the Banu Hashim clan the same clan as Muhammad of the Quraish tribe, and he was the cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad and had been one of his companions from the inception of his mission.

    Uthman was from the Umayyad clan of the Quraish. He was the second cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad and one of the early converts of Islam.

    Uthman was ultimately chosen. Uthman reigned for twelve years as caliph. During the first half of his reign he was the most popular caliph among all the Rashiduns , while in the later half of his reign he met increasing opposition, led by the Egyptians and concentrated around Ali, who would, albeit briefly, succeed Uthman as caliph. Despite internal troubles, Uthman continued the wars of conquest started by Umar. The Rashidun army conquered North Africa from the Byzantines and even raided Spain , conquering the coastal areas of the Iberian peninsula , as well as the islands of Rhodes and Cyprus.

    Uthman's most lasting project was the final compilation of the Qur'an. Under his authority diacritics were written with the Arabic letters so that non-native speakers of Arabic could easily read the Qur'an without difficulty. After a protest turned into a siege on his house, Uthman refused to initiate any military action, in order to avoid civil war between Muslims, and preferred to negotiate a peaceful solution.

    Uthman swore that he did not write the order and to talk the protesters down. The protesters responded by demanding he step down as caliph. Uthman refused and returned to his room, whereupon the protesters broke into Uthman's house and killed him while he was reading the Qur'an.

    After the assassination of the third Caliph, Uthman ibn Affan, the Companions of Muhammad in Medina selected Ali, who had been passed over for the leadership three times since the death of Muhammad, to be the new Caliph. Soon thereafter, Ali dismissed several provincial governors, some of whom were relatives of Uthman, and replaced them with trusted aides, such as Malik al-Ashtar and Salman the Persian.

    Ali then transferred his capital from Medina to Kufa , a Muslim garrison city in current-day Iraq. Demands to take revenge for the assassination of Caliph Uthman rose among parts of the population, and a large army of rebels led by Zubayr , Talha and the widow of Muhammad, Aisha , set out to fight the perpetrators.

    The army reached Basra and captured it, whereupon 4, suspected seditionists were put to death. Subsequently, Ali turned towards Basra and the caliph's army met the rebel army. Though neither Ali nor the leaders of the opposing force, Talha and Zubayr, wanted to fight, a battle broke out at night between the two armies.

    It is said, according to Sunni Muslim traditions, that those who were involved in the assassination of Uthman initiated combat, as they were afraid that negotiations between Ali and the opposing army would result in their capture and execution.

    The battle thus fought was the first battle between Muslims and is known as the Battle of the Camel. Ali emerged victorious and the dispute was settled. Thereafter, there rose another cry for revenge for the blood of Uthman, this time by Mu'awiya , kinsman of Uthman and governor of the province of Syria. However, it is regarded more as an attempt by Mu'awiya to assume the caliphate, rather than to take revenge for Uthman's murder.

    Ali fought Mu'awiya's forces to a stalemate at the Battle of Siffin , and then lost a controversial arbitration that ended with the arbiter, 'Amr ibn al-'As , pronouncing his support for Mu'awiya. After this Ali was forced to fight the Battle of Nahrawan against the rebellious Kharijites , a faction of his former supporters who, as a result of their dissatisfaction with the arbitration, opposed both Ali and Mu'awiya. Weakened by this internal rebellion and a lack of popular support in many provinces, Ali's forces lost control over most of the caliphate's territory to Mu'awiya while large sections of the empire--such as Sicily , North Africa , the coastal areas of Spain and some forts in Anatolia --were also lost to outside empires.

    In , Ali was assassinated by Ibn Muljam as part of a Kharijite plot to assassinate all the different Islamic leaders in an attempt to end the civil war, but the Kharijites failed to assassinate Mu'awiya and 'Amr ibn al-'As. Ali's son Hasan ibn Ali, the grandson of Muhammad, briefly assumed the caliphate and came to an agreement with Mu'awiya to fix relations between the two groups of Muslims that were each loyal to one of the two men.

    The treaty stated that Mu'awiya would not name a successor during his reign, and that he would let the Islamic world choose the next leader this treaty would later be broken by Mu'awiya as he named his son Yazid I successor. Hasan was assassinated, and Mu'awiya founded the Umayyad Caliphate , supplanting the Rashidun Caliphate. The Rashidun Caliphate expanded steadily; within the span of 24 years, a vast territory was conquered comprising Mesopotamia , the Levant , parts of Anatolia , and most of the Sasanian Empire.

    As a result, they also lost Egypt to the invading Rashidun army, although the civil wars among the Muslims halted the war of conquest for many years, and this gave time for the Byzantine Empire to recover.

    The first Islamic invasion of the Sasanian Empire, launched by Caliph Abu Bakr in , was a swift conquest, taking only four months. After entering Iraq with his army of 18,, Khalid won decisive victories in four consecutive battles: In the last week of May , the capital city of Iraq fell to the Muslims after initial resistance in the Battle of Hira. After resting his armies, Khalid moved in June towards Al Anbar , which resisted and was defeated , and eventually surrendered after a siege of a few weeks in July Khalid then moved towards the south, and conquered the city of Ein ul Tamr in the last week of July By now, almost the whole of Iraq was under Islamic control.

    Khalid received a call for help from Daumat-ul-jandal in Northern Arabia, where another Muslim general, Iyad ibn Ghanm , was trapped among the rebel tribes. Khalid diverted there and defeated the rebels in the Battle of Daumat-ul-jandal in the last week of August Returning from Arabia, he received news that a large Persian army was assembling.

    Within a few weeks, he decided to defeat them piecemeal in order to avoid the risk of defeat by a large unified Persian army. In November , Khalid divided his army into three units, and attacked these auxiliaries one by one from three different sides at night, starting with the Battle of Muzieh , then the Battle of Sanni , and finally the Battle of Zumail.

    These devastating defeats ended Persian control over Iraq. This was the last battle in his conquest of Iraq. Khalid then left Mesopotamia to lead another campaign in Syria against the Byzantine Empire, after which Mithna ibn Haris took command in Mesopotamia. The Persians once again concentrated armies to regain Mesopotamia , while Mithna ibn Haris withdrew from central Iraq to the region near the Arabian desert to delay war until reinforcement came from Medina.

    Umar sent reinforcements under the command of Abu Ubaidah Saqfi. With some initial success this army was finally defeated by the Sasanian army at the Battle of the Bridge in which Abu Ubaid was killed. The response was delayed until after a decisive Muslim victory against the Romans in the Levant at the Battle of Yarmouk in Umar was then able to transfer forces to the east and resume the offensive against the Sasanians.

    According to some sources, the Persian losses were 20,, and the Arabs lost 10, men. After seizing the city, they continued their drive eastwards, following Yazdgird and his remaining troops. By the mid-7th century, the Arabs controlled all of Mesopotamia, including the area that is now the Iranian province of Khuzestan. It is said that Caliph Umar did not wish to send his troops through the Zagros mountains and onto the Iranian plateau.

    [PDF][ePUB]The Age of Rightly Guided Caliphs series] Uthman bin Aff’an (R.A)

    One tradition has it that he wished for a "wall of fire" to keep the Arabs and Persians apart. Later commentators explain this as a common-sense precaution against over-extension of his forces.

    The Arabs had only recently conquered large territories that still had to be garrisoned and administered. The continued existence of the Persian government was, however, an incitement to revolt in the conquered territories and unlike the Byzantine army, the Sasanian army was continuously striving to regain their lost territories.

    Finally, Umar pressed forward, which eventually resulted in the wholesale conquest of the Sasanian Empire. Yazdegerd, the Sasanian king, made yet another effort to regroup and defeat the invaders.

    The Rashidun army, under the command of Umar's appointed general Nu'man ibn Muqarrin al-Muzani, attacked and again defeated the Persian forces. The Muslims proclaimed it the Victory of Victories Fath alfotuh , as it marked the End of the Sasanians , shattering the last strongest Sasanian army. Yazdegerd was unable to raise another army and became a hunted fugitive. In Umar sent the army to conquer the remainder of the Persian Empire.

    The entirety of present-day Iran was conquered, followed by Greater Khorasan which included the modern Iranian Khorasan province and modern Afghanistan , Transoxania , and Balochistan , Makran , Azerbaijan , Dagestan Russia , Armenia and Georgia ; these regions were later re-conquered during Uthman's reign with further expansion into the regions which were not conquered during Umar's reign; hence, the Rashidun Caliphate's frontiers in the east extended to the lower river Indus and north to the Oxus River.

    After Khalid consolidated his control of Iraq, Abu Bakr sent four armies to Syria on the Byzantine front under four different commanders: However their advance was halted by a concentration of the Byzantine army at Ajnadayn.

    Abu Ubaidah then sent for reinforcements. Abu Bakr ordered Khalid, who by now was planning to attack Ctesiphon , to march from Iraq to Syria with half his army. There were 2 major routes to Syria from Iraq, one passing through Mesopotamia and the other through Daumat ul-Jandal.

    Khalid took an unconventional route through the Syrian Desert , and after a perilous march of 5 days, appeared in north-western Syria. Khalid marched on to Bosra via the Damascus road. Bosra, caught unprepared, surrendered after a brief siege in July see Battle of Bosra , effectively ending the dynasty of the Ghassanids. From Bosra, Khalid sent orders to the other corps commanders to join him at Ajnadayn, where, according to early Muslim historians, a Byzantine army of 90, modern sources state 9, [46] was concentrated to push back the Muslims.

    The Byzantine army was defeated decisively on 30 July in the Battle of Ajnadayn. It was the first major pitched battle between the Muslims and Byzantines and cleared the way for the former to capture central Syria. Damascus , the Byzantine stronghold, was conquered shortly after on 19 September The Byzantine army was given a deadline of 3 days to flee as far as they could, with their families and treasure, or simply agree to stay in Damascus and pay tribute. After the three days had passed, the Muslim cavalry, under Khalid's command, attacked the Roman army by catching up to them using an unknown shortcut at the battle of Maraj-al-Debaj.

    On 22 August , Abu Bakr died, making Umar his successor. As Umar became caliph, he restored Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah to overall command of the Muslim armies. The conquest of Syria slowed down under him while he relied heavily on the advice of Khalid, who he kept close at hand.

    The last large garrison of the Byzantine army was at Fahl, which was joined by survivors of Ajnadayn. With this threat at their rear the Muslim armies could not move further north nor south, thus Abu Ubaidah decided to deal with the situation, and defeated and routed this garrison at the Battle of Fahl on 23 January , which proved to be the "Key to Palestine".

    This army, however, could not make it to Damascus and was intercepted by Abu Ubaidah and Khalid on their way to Emesa. The army was destroyed in the battle of Maraj-al-Rome and the second battle of Damascus. Emesa and the strategic town of Chalcis made peace with the Muslims for one year in order to download time for Heraclius to prepare his defences and raise new armies.

    The Muslims welcomed the peace and consolidated their control over the conquered territory. However, as soon as the Muslims received the news of reinforcements being sent to Emesa and Chalcis, they marched against Emesa, laid siege to it and eventually captured the city in March The prisoners taken in the battle informed them about Emperor Heraclius's plans to take back Syria.

    They said that an army possibly , strong would soon emerge to recapture the province. Khalid stopped here on June As soon as Abu Ubaida heard the news of the advancing Byzantine army, he gathered all his officers to plan their next move. Khalid suggested that they should consolidate all of their forces present in the province of Syria Syria, Jordan, Palestine and then move towards the plain of Yarmouk for battle.

    Abu Ubaida ordered the Muslim commanders to withdraw from all the conquered areas, return the tributes they had previously gathered, and move towards Yarmuk. Nothing further happened until the third week of August, during which the Battle of Yarmouk was fought. The battle lasted 6 days during which Abu Ubaida transferred the command of the entire army to Khalid. Outnumbered five-to-one, the Muslims nevertheless defeated the Byzantine army in October Abu Ubaida held a meeting with his high command officers, including Khalid, to decide on future conquests, settling on Jerusalem.

    The siege of Jerusalem lasted four months, after which the city agreed to surrender, but only to Caliph Umar Ibn Al Khattab in person. Abu Ubaida himself, along with Khalid, moved to northern Syria to reconquer it with a 17,man army. Khalid, along with his cavalry, was sent to Hazir and Abu Ubaidah moved to the city of Qasreen. The city surrendered to Khalid, and soon after, Abu Ubaidah arrived in June Abu Ubaidah then moved against Aleppo , with Khalid, as usual, commanding the cavalry.

    After the Battle of Aleppo the city finally agreed to surrender in October Abu Ubaida and Khalid ibn Walid, after conquering all of northern Syria, moved north towards Anatolia taking the fort of Azaz to clear the flank and rear of Byzantine troops.

    On their way to Antioch, a Roman army blocked them near a river on which there was an iron bridge. Because of this, the following battle is known as the Battle of the Iron Bridge. Later during the year, Abu Ubaida sent Khalid and Iyad ibn Ghanm at the head of two separate armies against the western part of Jazira , most of which was conquered without strong resistance, including parts of Anatolia, Edessa and the area up to the Ararat plain.

    Other columns were sent to Anatolia as far west as the Taurus Mountains , the important city of Marash , and Malatya , which were all conquered by Khalid in the autumn of CE. During Uthman's reign, the Byzantines recaptured many forts in the region and on Uthman's orders, a series of campaigns were launched to regain control of them. In Muawiyah , the governor of Syria, sent an expedition against Anatolia, invading Cappadocia and sacking Caesarea Mazaca.

    In the Rashidun army raided Phrygia. The truce that followed allowed a short respite, and made it possible for Constans II to hold on to the western portions of Armenia.

    In —, on the orders of Uthman, an expedition prepared to attack Constantinople , but this plan was not carried out due to the civil war that broke out in In , Egypt was a prefecture of the Byzantine Empire. The power of the Byzantine Empire was shattered during the Muslim conquest of Syria, and therefore the conquest of Egypt was much easier.

    In some Rashidun troops led by Amr ibn al-As were sent by Umar to conquer the land of the ancient pharaohs. The imperial garrisons retreated into the walled towns, where they successfully held out for a year or more.

    However, the Muslims sent for reinforcements, and the invading army, joined by another 12, men in , defeated a Byzantine army at the Battle of Heliopolis. Amr next proceeded in the direction of Alexandria , which was surrendered to him by a treaty signed on 8 November The Thebaid seems to have surrendered with scarcely any opposition.

    The ease with which this valuable province was wrenched from the Byzantine Empire appears to have been due to the treachery of Cyrus , [51] prefect of Egypt and Melchite Patriarch of Alexandria , and the incompetence of the Byzantine generals, as well as the loss of most of the Byzantine troops in Syria.

    Cyrus had persecuted the local Coptic Christians. He was one of the authors of monothelism , a seventh-century heresy, and some supposed him to have been a secret convert to Islam.

    In , during Uthman's reign, the Byzantines briefly regained Alexandria, but it was retaken by Amr in In an invasion fleet sent by Constans II was repulsed. After this, no serious effort was made by the Byzantines to regain possession of the country.

    The Prophet Muhammad and the Origins of Islam

    The Muslims were assisted by some Copts, who found the Muslims more tolerant than the Byzantines, and of these some turned to Islam. In return for a tribute of money and food for the occupation troops, the Christian inhabitants of Egypt were excused from military service and left free in the observance of their religion and the administration of their affairs.

    Others sided with the Byzantines, hoping that they would provide a defense against the Arab invaders. After the withdrawal of the Byzantines from Egypt, the Exarchate of Africa declared its independence. Under its exarch, Gregory the Patrician , its dominions extended from the borders of Egypt to Morocco. Abdullah Ibn Sa'ad sent raiding parties to the west, resulting in considerable booty and encouraging Sa'ad to propose a campaign to conquer the Exarchate.

    Uthman gave him permission after considering it in the Majlis al Shura. A force of 10, soldiers was sent as reinforcement. The Rashidun army assembled in Barqa in Cyrenaica , and from there they marched west, captured Tripoli , and then advanced to Sufetula , Gregory's capital. In the ensuing battle , the Exarchate was defeated and Gregory was killed due to the superior tactics of Abdullah ibn Zubayr.

    Afterwards, the people of North Africa sued for peace, agreeing to pay an annual tribute. When the stipulated amount of the tribute was paid, the Muslim forces withdrew to Barqa. The Ummayad Caliphate would later re-invade North Africa in A campaign was undertaken against Nubia during the Caliphate of Umar in , but failed after the Makurians won the First Battle of Dongola.

    The Muslim army pulled out of Nubia with nothing to show for it. This army penetrated deeper into Nubia and laid siege to the Nubian capital of Dongola. The Muslims damaged the cathedral in the center of the city, but Makuria also won this battle. As the Muslims were unable to overpower Makuria, they negotiated a mutual non-aggression treaty with their king, Qaladurut. Each side also agreed to afford free passage to the each other through their respective territories. Nubia agreed to provide slaves to Egypt every year, while Egypt agreed to supply grain, horses, and textiles to Nubia according to demand.

    During Umar's reign, the governor of Syria, Muawiyah I , sent a request to build a naval force to invade the islands of the Mediterranean Sea but Umar rejected the proposal because of the risk to the soldiers. Once Uthman became caliph, however, he approved Muawiyah's request. In , Muawiyah attacked Cyprus , conquering the capital, Constantia , after a brief siege, but signed a treaty with the local rulers.

    During this expedition, a relative of Muhammad, Umm-Haram, fell from her mule near the Salt Lake at Larnaca and was killed. She was buried in that same spot, which became a holy site for many local Muslims and Christians and, in , the Hala Sultan Tekke was built there by the Ottomans.

    After apprehending a breach of the treaty, the Arabs re-invaded the island in with five hundred ships. This time, however, a garrison of 12, men was left in Cyprus, bringing the island under Muslim influence.

    The power of the Quraish derived from their role as successful merchants. Several trade routes intersected at Mecca, allowing the Quraish to control trade along the west coast of Arabia, north to Syria, and south to Yemen. Mecca was home to two widely venerated polytheistic cults whose gods were thought to protect its lucrative trade.

    After working for several years as a merchant, Muhammad was hired by Khadija, a wealthy widow, to ensure the safe passage of her caravans to Syria.

    They eventually married.

    Divine Revelations When he was roughly forty, Muhammad began having visions and hearing voices. Searching for clarity, he would sometimes meditate at Mount Hira, near Mecca. On one of these occasions, the Archangel Gabriel Jibra'il in Arabic appeared to him and instructed him to recite "in the name of [your] lord.

    These early revelations pointed to the existence of a single God, contradicting the polytheistic beliefs of the pre-Islamic Arabian Peninsula. Initially overwhelmed by the significance of what was being revealed to him, Muhammad found unflinching support in his wife and slowly began to attract followers. His strong monotheistic message angered many of the Meccan merchants. They were afraid that trade, which they believed was protected by the pagan gods, would suffer.

    From that point forward, Muhammad was ostracized in Mecca. For a time, the influence and status of his wife and his uncle, Abu Talib, the chief of the clan, protected Muhammad from persecution.

    During the caliphate, the Muslims repaired many of the aging wells in the lands they conquered. Many canals were purchased, and new ones constructed. While some canals were excluded for the use of monks such as a spring purchased by Talhah , and the needy, most canals were open to general public use.

    Some canals were constructed between settlements, such as the Saad canal that provided water to Anbar, and the Abi Musa Canal to provide water to Basra. The purpose of the canal was to facilitate the transport of grain to Arabia through a sea-route, hitherto transported only by land. The canal was constructed within a year by 'Amr ibn al-'As , and Abdus Salam Nadiv writes that "Arabia was rid of famine for all the times to come.

    He also constructed a dam near Medina to protect its fountains from flooding.

    BYS Bishapur mint.

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