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I am dialoguing with Deleuze and Guattari's notion of "smooth" or "unstriated" space as the counter to "sedentary space [that] is striated, by walls, enclosures, and roads between enclosures" and extending it to flows here; flows are energized smooth spaces in concerted, directional movement. Within flows, all bodies are nomadic since they can never fully territorialize or institutionalize the flow, but they nevertheless occupy temporary positions that appear static in the event of occupation, that is, in the convergence of the occupying body with a particular location and interval of time.
As Deleuze and Guattari theorize, "the nomad distributes himself in a smooth space; he occupies, inhabits, holds that space; that is his territorial principle. Jtis therefore false to define the nomad by movement" Agency is thus taken up within the river's flows, but also against them, as that acting, speaking "I" in resistance against the power of the flow that would overwhelm it.
People are no more than "a raiz exposta na beira-rio-rio do destino" Farias, "As visaes". The Amazon thus resists objectification, since humans are unable to place the necessary constraints limits on it to contain it materially or even achieve symbolic definition.
On the contrary, Mello writes that, ''A lei do rio nao cesa nunca de impor- se sobre a vida dos homens. E 0 imperio da agua" It's the rule of water. Nonetheless, there is no sense here that the water governs willfully, as deity, imposing symbolic order in the Lacanian sense; it rules through the material imperative of flows, through its ability to permeate and generate friction on all bodies with which it comes into contact due to the pull that gravity places on it.
On the other hand, Amazonian thought does not view flows in mechanistic terms, as the sum of the movement of their parts; it is the course they both forge and follow "su propio curso" that occupies Amazonian thought, since the course determines the movement of the parts-that is, whatever is caught up within the flows Olortegui Saenz ANDERSON through objectivizing water; instead, it emerges through the ways in which human bodies situate themselves with relation to these different aquatic flows, channeling their energy but never containing them completely.
TIlls contrasts with Western thought, in which movement is usually taken as the sign of what is alive, when compared against a background of static objects.
In Amazonian thought, staticitywithin incessant material movement of flows constitutes positionality and, therefore, subjectivity. On the other hand, there is never the possibility of disrupting or containing flows entirely, making them static; even the damming of rivers is seen merely as a temporary blockage that will eventually lead to catastrophic failure when the backed up flows accumulate sufficiently to overcome the human constraints and restore the sovereignty of water.
In this conceptualization, it is not humans that impose the constraints of grammar over an object in order to construct subjectivity, but rather the seemingly infinite, undifferentiated flow of water that draws humans into relational awareness. In the Western tradition, awareness of limits -finitude- gives rise to conscious thought.
Humanist philosophy posits that the finality of death the end of time imposes absolute constraints over human will, generating existential anxiety. TIlls anxiety is then attenuated by "naming" the outside world using symbols, thus converting it from an amorphous threatening presence to a controlled quantity that can be manipulated through material practices, which, in turn, transform it into a human territoty.
Amazonian perspectivism, however, is closer to Deleuze and Guattari's thought on horizons -it is not the finitude of constraints, but rather the differential between scales that gives rise to awareness. Nada perece. Las aguas suman aguas y el jaguar nos contempla con su pupila ardiente " Nothing perishes The waters add waters and the jaguar contemplates us with his burning eye.
When "nada perece," the subject becomes mutilated by wholeness "herido de belleza" , that is, indefinition; it confronts disembodiment because it extends indefinitely into time- space. The differential then must step in to bracket the body as itself, to impose relative limits through comparison: the body is itself not because it is not water everyone knows that life requires water , but because it is not infinite like water "Las aguas suman aguas".
Likewise, the body is materialized by the animal gaze not because it is inhuman Derrida's animot , but because both are individuated as single entities el jaguar , both perceive one another, and neither is infinite. Gaze supplements for touch; it is a measure of the turbulences created within the flow of light when bodies disrupt it.
This material differential is not the same as the symbolic order, which relies on the hierarchical distribution of identities between poles of difference, because it depends on ongoing, direct perception rather than diachronic symbolic abstraction and because there are no ends to the scale -there are uncountable things smaller than the human body and larger than the river, things whose dimensions cannot be measured or described in definite terms the wind or the cosmos, for example.
In fact, there are infinite things of all qualities including size , positions, velocities, and durations. Furthermore, there is no outside or neutral observing point from which one could perform absolute measurements; all comparisons between elements therefore become arbitrary spatial configurations within specific temporal events or encounters.
In this way, subjectivity is seen as relational, dependent on position with respect to select, temporal bodies in movement, rather than absolute. Furthermore, in animistic thinking, notions of the "relative" playoff the twin meanings of the term, implying not only the recognition of comparative difference, but also ethical entwinement or a kinship of sorts Bird-David SS There is no abstraction from these differential interactions; since subjectivities are not absolute essence , they are generated mutually in the differential that forms spontaneously when bodies encounter each other.
TIlls results in a sitnation in which subjectivity- conscious self-awareness-is not viewed as a purely human condition; in fact, all bodies that participate in the differential interaction develop perspective.
Viveiros de Castro describes this "perspectival quality" in Amazonian thought as "the conception, common to many peoples of the continent, according to which the world is inhabited by different sorts of subjects or persons, human and non-human, which apprehend reality from distinct points of view" He contrasts this "multinatnralism" with the Western humanist tradition of multicultnralism, in which differences are cultural symbolic while the human, as a biological entity, is universal In Amazonian thought, instead, subjectivity is universal, while differences are embodied in the flesh rather than symbolic.
As he summarizes, the problem then becomes how to "differentiate a 'natnre' out of the universal sociality" This sitnation contrasts diametrically with Western notions of subjectivity, in which the subject is fixed and the point of view creates the object; in Amerindian ", ontological perspectivism, the point of view creates the subject Viveiros de Castro MARK D.
Furthermore, drawing on Deleuze and Guattari, Viveiros de Castro insists on the corporality of this kind of subjectivity: "a perspective is not a representation because representations are a property of the mind and the spirit, whereas the point of view is located in the body" In this formulation of a non-dualistic, material animism, all entities with bodies necessarily have a point of view, and therefore subjectivity.
On the other hand, the bodies that provide these unique points of view are not fixed forms; they themselves arise from ongoing processes of differentiation. As Mello describes it in "Como urn rio" Like a River , the trick of selfhood is: "Mudar ern movimento I mas sem deixar de ser I a mesmo ser que muda I como urn rio. In this sense, one might say that Amazonian bodies can only be racialized or speciated definitively when they are abstracted from their environment and turned static in photographs, zoos, museums, or writing.
Although Viveiros de Castro does not frame it in these terms, I argue that the "universal sociality" underpinning Amerindian notions of subjectivity arises from continual differential interaction within the environment more than the mythical genealogy with which he associates it-that is, as select animals having fallen from the human form, but nevertheless retaining their human essence Rather, I propose that the sense of universal sociality arises from these mutual differential interactions, in which it is assumed that all bodies involved in comparison take on subjectivity; they size each other up, so to speak.
And since bodies can only be defined in function of this differential relationship, all bodies acquire agency or being simply from entering into the sphere of relationality. Differentiation -what Praet calls shape- thus becomes a matter of the range of positions that a body may assume within this mesh of comparisons, a range that is not immanent to the body itself, but rather becomes apparent in the process of differentiationY In turn, these positions are defined only by the behaviors that maintain them, singling them out against undifferentiated flows.
And when behavior and displays change, bodies change: "To put on mask-clothing is not so much to conceal a human essence beneath an animal appearance, but rather to activate the powers of a different body" Viveiros de Castro In this case, the display and performance of animality interrupt the flow of culture, effectively transforming a human body into an animal one. The simple answer is that langnage is material as well: speaking is a material practice-a specific set of behaviors-through which one situates oneself within flows.
Furthermore, positioning bodies in a series within flows produces langnage as the sonic manifestation of the turbulences that are generated within the sequence, while the patterning of the series endows sound with rhythm, generating grammar and meaning. Rather than mediating a situation from the beyond of culture, then, langnage belongs to each event, generated and reenacted physically in each recurring encounter of bodies within material and cultural flows. Like the bodies to which it corresponds, langnage is thus the product of the interplay between flow and resistance, and speech acts -poems- are "os tempo-ilhas do quando," as Jorge Tufic describes them, island-events converging bodies within the flows of time and material Santiago Many Amazonian authors draw on music to describe this relation, since music is transparently the product of material frictions, of touch transformed into sounds with specific time signatures: intermittent air flowing over vocal cords or reeds, strings and drum heads vibrating in resonance or dissonance with other frequencies and tempos.
And, while music undoubtedly transmits cultural meaning, its symbolism is. As Wilson Harris puts it, "Is there a langnage akin to music threaded Into space and time which is prior to human discourse? Such a question is implicitly imprinted in legends of Guyanese and South American landscapes, preternatural voices in rivers, rapids, giant waterfalls, rock, tree" a: In this conceptualization, Harris considers that words become like rocks that create turbulence meaning within the smooth flow of rivers: The phenomenon of apparently immobile rocks which playa tidal role in non-tidal rivers is a miracle of evolution.
Non-tidal rivers run ceaselessly downwards from their headwaters or sources in a distant watershed. Indeed, Amazonian poetry commonly deploys this "musical view of the universe," as Basso calls it. Nonetheless, the musicality of poetry, like the rhythmic lives of animals, resists this hierarchization: rhythm and melody emerge through the interactions between any series of bodies whether human, animal, vegetal, or mineral that punctuate smooth flows, generating meaning through turbulence, that is, through resonance, dissonance, pace, and repetition.
Tellingly, Basso associates musicality with animism in general, since music recognizes the relevance of all production of sound in its communicative potential as biosemiotic code, a horizontal valorization of sound's communicability that language denies due to its insistence on symbolic correspondence. In a musical view of the universe, music encompasses all forms of speech Basso Additionally, human. In this scenario, culture can be viewed as a transversal flow intersecting other flows, distributing and depositing bodies -Harris's stones- in distinctive patterns in order to produce the rhythmic and melodic effects that I have argued endow language with grammar and material with meaning, while particular speech acts, as behavior, also position individual bodies within undifferentiated, smooth flows.
The notion of lives subjected to natural flows is anathema to modernity; the purpose of modernity and its institutions is precisely to channel and regulate natural flows so that they generate wealth and well-being and cease to present threats to human order.
As Deleuze and Guattari point out, "the State needs to subordinate hydraulic force to conduits, pipes, embankments, which prevent turbulence, which constrain movement to go from one point to another, and space itself to be striated and measured, which makes fluid depend on the solid, and flows proceed in parallel, laminar layers" In modernity, flows are channeled into machinery for producing capital; bodies suspended in natural flows are sedimented, processed, and sorted as commodities and labor, while the flows themselves are carefully rerouted and regulated to produce circuits of production and consumption or are contained in reservoirs, as reserves of capital and productive energy.
The Amazonian river flows' sole purposes become to generate electricity that circulates on a grid and to carry extracted commodities downstream towards larger global economic circuits, while the flow of solar energy, concentrated into hydrocarbon chains, fires engines driving products back upriver to be exchanged for commodities, and migration -the flow of people and culture- is carefully channeled and pooled to produce labor and consumption.
Despite its successes elsewhere, however, this model of modernity encounters serious difficulties in Amazonia. At the most basic level, Amazonia's geography confounds the straightforward implementation of modernity in the Euclidean """ models developed in Europe and the United States, which rely primarily on static MARK D.
The vastness of the Amazonian rivers' flows, the immense volume of silt and diverse bodies caught up within them, and the marshy permeability of the land to water all conspire against facile regulation. Floods wash away institutions, silting them over, and seeds germinate in a destructive upwelling of vegetation that soon overtakes the ruins of human occupation. Buildings are built and abandoned, and institutions become nomadic, subject to flows. Resource extraction continues unabated, but outside of a few cities built on high ground, full modernization in the Western model remains elusive in Amazonia.
For people who live there, this impermanence of modernity, its subjection to natural flows, makes perfect sense; it follows the patterns of life in Amazonia as they know it.
Furthermore, modernity itself appears as an ebb and flow of capital and goods that erodes land and culture, but it also deposits new bodies like flotsam on Amazonian river shores: foreigners, oilrigs, bulldozers, prepackaged food, t-shirts, and electronics. It brings both life and destruction. Capital floods in and recedes in boom and bust cycles that recall the wet and dry seasons.
This relegation of modernity to one flow among many is highly subversive to the mythology upholding modernity's cultural hegemony: modernity portrays itself as a consistent and irreversible cultural and environmental process that progressively transforms humans into the absolute owners of their own destiny and of nature's "commodities. Modernity allows differential perspectivism only in a historical sense: the modern subject judges itselfsuperior to past iterations ofthe human subject.
Furthermore, capitalism works by commodifYing collective identities, transforming them through desymbolization into machined assemblages distributed into demographic and market segments. Any cultural differences that reject desymbolization and assimilation into marketable identity demographics are relegated to anachronism: they are relics of the past that serve only to reaffirm the superiority of modernity.
In this setting, Floyd's observation that Amazonian inhabitants' "practices of circnlar reversion to old knowledge after exposure to new information, or of parallel adaptations to form combinations of strategies from both Western and indigenous knowledge systems, defY the timeline of acculturation by patterning in spirals and webs instead of straight lines" becomes particularly poignant Traditional Amazonian worldviews not only persist when confronted with modernity, but they actually reroute it through "parallel adaptations.
As Floyd notes, Western migrants to the region often end up adopting Amazonian cultural perspectives This transformative power of Amazonian thought lies not in its exotic appeal to a pastoral "native" return to paradise or pre-modern worldviews, but rather in its radical cosmopolitanism, which is able to incorporate bodies of any kind into its scope through its unique conceptualization of subjectivity as a universal property that is generated in the interactions between any body or series of bodies and any flow or series of flows.
I am not interested in Amazonian thought as an ethnographic curiosity; I believe that this radical, ecological cosmopolitanism that includes all bodies whether human, animal, plant, or mineral within its universal perspectivism represents an innovative and promising approach to the fundamental aporia of humani nature dualism at the heart of current formulations of environmental ethics and ecological citizenship.
Environmental ethics focuses primarily on developing ways to endow non-human nature with value and, thus, moral standing. Since the goal of environmental ethics is to achieve a pragmatic solution to this problem, it tends to work within the dominant paradigm of neoliberal capitalism to find workable solutions. In this framework, nature must be assigned either economic value or political standing; thus the emphasis on environmental economies on the one hand, and the notion of ecological citizenship, in which non-human beings would acquire moral standing and political rights, on the other.
Of course, there are many alternative formulations that reject neoliberal capitalism altogether; however, these solutions are usually viewed as impractical at best given the current cultural, economic, and political hegemony of neoliberal capitalism. Amazonian perspectivism, on the other hand, is eminently practical, since it is a current worldview that coexists with and has actually expanded with the arrival of capitalism. Furthermore, its focus on mutability and movement finds a certain compatibility with neoliberal capitalism's deconstruction of identities and flexibility of form that other, more rigid philosophies of identity have difficulty weathering.
Nonetheless, that compatibility does not denote complicity but rather resilience and subversion: as I have already discussed, neoliberal capitalism depends on a fundamentally rigid notion of the sovereignty of the modern subject and its ability to instrumentalize or commodifY. In Amazonian perspectivism, on the contrary, all bodies involved in differential comparison are assumed to have perspective, and therefore also being.
Value is not dependent on rights and duties, but on mutual recognition. This does not mean that violence may not be inflicted on other bodies, but each case of violence is an encounter between individuals. There is no sense of the unlimited sovereignty and agency of the human subject-that is, the foundational subject! Furthermore, the recognition of the material power of flows to channel and endow other bodies with power through friction carries with it the sense that it is fundamentally wrong and dangerous to alter the natural course of things.
This is true even in the sense of imposing meaning through langnage, as Elson Farias pointed out in "Os pecados do poeta," never mind the drastic alteration and regulation of flows that capitalism requires. Since Amazonian perspectivism is a counterhegemonic worldview, it does not have the power to grant nonhuman bodies or flows themselves with legal standing, except possibly in the case of a few indigenous groups who have acquired property rights and a degree of political autonomy.
Nature does not have legal standing, but it does have substantial political force in popular movements and indigenous activism that works to combat disruptions in natural and cultural flows.
When identities are conceived through flows, there is self-interest in maintaining them free of undue disruptions. At the same time, the nomadism of flows precludes the notions of private property and accumulation that anchor capitalism; it is instead the stability of the flow that sustains life. Although much remains to discuss on this topic, I will end by pointing out that Amazonian ecological cosmopolitanism also avoids the principal danger of conceiving environmental ethics through localism or biorregionalism, which is that of a return to the kind of nineteenth-century environmental determinism that devalued non-European environments and their inhabitants in order to justifY neocolonial enterprises.
None of these vii. Global Warming d. The district of the country having lowest population density is: Kharan d. Jordan c. Human Rights Violations c. Baramula d. Khuzdar b. World Environment Day b. Agha Zuhaib Khan iv. SAARC c. The first Muslim Nobel Laureate was: Ringgit is the currency unit of: Sudan c. The First President of America who made an official visit to Pakistan was: Darfur conflict is in: Somalia b. None of these xv. One US Barrel oil is equal to: South Waziristan d.
Parachinar is the main town of: Singapore b. None of these xii. Dwight D. None of these xvii. Philippines c. Group of 77 d. Liberia d. None of these xiv. Eishenhower c.
Yasser Arafat of Palestine c. None of these xiii. Pakistan is the Chairman of: Richard Nixon b. Abdus Salam of Pakistan d. Non-Aligned Movement b. Lyndon B Johnson d. Anwar Saadat of Egypt b. Malaysia d. Agha Zuhaib Khan xi. Khyber Agency b. None of these 3 www. North Waziristan c.
None of these xvi. G-8 d. D-8 c. None of these xx. The amicable solution of Siachen glacier and Sir Creek maritime boundary disputes might harbinger the settlement of the core issue of Kashmir between Pakistan and India. Why Pakistan is desperately seeking full-fledged membership in the Shanghai Cooperation Organization? All questions carry equal marks.
None of these xix. President of Chile b. Discuss the potential challenges Pakistan is facing in the WTO regime. Paris d. New York c. Agha Zuhaib Khan xviii. Defense Secretary of United States c. London b. Green Peace b. General Michael Hayden is the: Which of the following International Organizations has no formal structure and Secretariat? How far India factor is responsible for the present state of Pakistan-Afghanistan relations?
SAFTA c. Palestine issue. Great Game in Central Asia e. Agha Zuhaib Khan Q. Write notes on any TWO of the following: Current Affairs Uploaded by Faizullah Magsi.
Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Pakistan-India Trade: What Needs to Be Done? What Does It Matter? Jump to Page. Search inside document. Transparency International is based in: New York b. London c.